Specifically, what exactly it means by "Consideration of error conditions and response actions." and what exactly things like "debug terminal, print to screen, real-time debugger, external mode/in-the-loop" are. it would be great if I could somehow get an explanation of what these are and how to use them. 
Thank you very much!
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I was able to find these statements in the Software and Simulation scoresheet. 

Here is my interpretation of these statements, others (even the judges) might think of them differently though but hopefully this is helpful:

"Consideration of error conditions and response actions" - This is a typical programming/software practice where you have some part of your program checking for errors or illegal operation and then its throws an error message or handles that illegal operation accordingly. I good example is say for instance you do some math operations to the joystick analog value and the resulting value is outside of the range -127 to +127, which is the acceptable range by the motors. You may sometime see weird or unexpected behavior on the robot due to this (even though the Cortex will round it off to the min or max value). One way to handle this issue is to actively 'saturate' the result output from your math operations to be within that range before sending it to the motor block. These could be called the motor/servo stop limits. 

"debug terminal, print to screen, real-time debugger, external mode/in-the-loop" - How do you currently debug issues in your software? Do you use Display blocks connected at different points to check what values are being output during simulation. Or if you are using a C_based programming IDE then you could use their debug terminal to test the motor values. Any technique that you are using in your software/program to catch bugs (without trail-and -error on the actual robot), those methods would help you score here. 

Hope this helps. 
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